The two examples you provide are great case studies. I think this SE site is going to be more prone to this problem than any other in the history of SE. Here be dragons!
My personal opinion is that in the first example you gave, the answer is entirely inappropriate. Even if it's not an outright violation of copyright (which I suspect it is) it turns this site into an internet archive / plagiarizing machine. Your link is the most glaring example, but that user has several other answers that are mostly (or entirely) copy/paste content. A few other users have made such posts as well.
I think the second example you give is more difficult. Yes it has some of the same properties, but as you point out it is also significantly different. I appreciate the effort spent in finding related research, and it provides something I couldn't have learned just by googling myself. Part of the expertise being presented was knowing where to find and how to correlate those particular sources. Unlike the first examples, it is obvious that the user actually has expertise in the field rather than just being a proficient surfer. I think that particular answer could use some improvement visa-vi a TL;DR or summary text that helps put the different statements in the context with each other, but I don't think there is a fundamental problem with that kind of answer. I have done something similar in taking an idea from a commentary and appending it to an answer of my own.
In between these two cases there are some more borderline examples where the majority of an answer is copy/paste and from a single source, but the tone seems to be more in line with your second example.
The major exception not covered in your question is bible passage quotations. It looks like those are pretty generally encouraged!
Unfortunately I don't think that voting alone is enough to police this type of problem. Unless there is some kind of policy or guideline in place, this will continue to happen with abandon. In spite of all our best intentions, reputation marks WILL be skewed by people's proficiency as surfers and willingness to plagiarizer. For proof I could cite a hundred answers across SE site where copy/paste answers get run-away votes. It happens to me. I spend untold hours working on custom answers to people's problems over on Unix.SE. My best work get's +1 comments from guru users, but few votes. One day a really dumb question came along (ironically involving a story about the Pope). I responded with a quick copy paste from Wikipedia to set the record straight and it quickly became one of my top answers. It was so bad that I ended going back and basically scrapping the OP's question so that the question didn't give Unix.SE a bad name.
TL;DR I think we need an official policy (or at least a FAQ point as a guideline) about what is appropriate use of copy/paste from other site. Using this guideline as a basis, we can then comment on posts that are out of bounds and if they are not corrected, flag them for moderators to deal with those users. Such comments and links to the guidelines will also help people know how to vote appropriately.